In any case, the phrase is often applied negatively to describe a lack of space or cramped quarters. Other studies have confirmed the risk of OSA syndrome with stroke or death from any cause Ayas et al.
Structures that regulate sleep and wakefulness, for example the brainstem, hypothalamus and basal forebrain, are abnormally overactive during sleep in primary insomnia patients Nofzinger et al.
Another study, a large population-based study of more than 1, adults, found a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration, measured by polysomnography, and BMI Figure This type of association is often described as a U-shaped relationship.
It consists of five 20 minute daytime naps at 2-hour intervals. More Data on the Extent of Fatherlessness An estimated What appears to occur with depression is that the decrease is less pronounced.
Adolescents also frequently report receiving insufficient sleep. The findings suggest that a hormonally mediated increase in appetite may help to explain why short sleep is related to obesity. The adjusted OR for stroke was 1. Other problems are their cost and patient adherence Benca, a.
Asthma, a common childhood respiratory illness, is also associated with OSA in children Sulit et al. The public health consequences of sleep loss and sleep-related disorders are far from benign.
Commonly used treatments include oxygen, CPAP, and acetazolamide, a drug that acts as a respiratory stimulant White, It should be noted, however, that the majority of these studies are observational in nature, and thus definite causal inferences cannot be made.
Taken as a whole, the body of evidence suggests that the serious public health problem of obesity may continue to grow as sleep loss trends continue to worsen.
Obesity, male gender, and increasing age Table Young et al. The impact of sleep loss diminishes with age. Insomniafor example, worsens outcomes in depression, schizophrenia, and alcohol dependence.
Further, because sleep and psychiatric disorders, by themselves, are disabling, the treatment of the comorbidity may reduce needless disability. Research pointed to the potential of refrigerator temperature and fridges harboring pathogens to contribute to the risk of contracting foodborne illness, with a large proportion of domestic appliances operating above 5 degrees Celsius.
OSA is found in at least 4 percent of men and 2 percent of women in the middle-aged workforce, according to the first major United States population-based study of the condition conducted about 15 years ago Young et al.
The diagnosis of OSA requires detection, by polysomnography, of at least five or more apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep Thorpy, Fatherless Epidemic Infographic — Infographic full of statistics about the problems facing fatherless children today.
The subgroup experienced twice the risk of mortality Lindberg et al. The comorbidity, or coexistence, of a full-blown sleep disorder particularly insomnia and hypersomnia with a psychiatric disorder is also common.
Obesity in adults and children Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance Cardiovascular disease and hypertension Depressed mood Alcohol use Many of the studies find graded associations, insofar as the greater the degree of sleep deprivation, the greater the apparent adverse effect although the difference may not reach statistical significance.
Disturbances in these systems may differ according to the nature of insomnia. However, other more recent population-based studies support these prevalence figures Bixler et al. The comorbidity of sleep disorders with psychiatric disorders is covered later in this chapter.
As they progress from waking to non- REM NREM sleep, depressed subjects have smaller decreases in relative metabolism in regions of the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex when compared to individuals who are healthy Nofzinger et al. Comorbidity might be due to one disorder being a risk factor or cause of the other; they might both be manifestations of the same or overlapping physiological disturbance; one might be a consequence of the other.
However, each of these studies was relatively small less than individualsand findings can be considered only tentative. Prevalence is higher among women and older individuals Mellinger et al.MSCD deals with the phrase to the extent that.
It makes the simple point that although to the extent that is appropriate when the degree to which a provision applies depends on some variable, drafters often use to the extent that when if would be more appropriate.
Here are three examples: To. Define extent. extent synonyms, extent pronunciation, extent translation, English dictionary definition of extent. n. 1. the phrase is often applied negatively to describe a lack of space or cramped quarters.
June, I am pent up in a frowzy lodging, where there is not room enough to swing a cat. (Tobias Smollett, Expedition of Humphry. The Extent of Fatherlessness. Home > Statistics and Research > The Extent of Fatherlessness. More than 20 million children live in a home without the physical presence of a father.
Millions more have dads who are physically present, but emotionally absent. Jul 04, · This claim limits the extent of the conclusion in that this conclusion is only about homelessness due to a lack of available housing.
This argument is not about homelessness due to other reasons, such as drug/alcohol abuse. Lack of clarity around extent and cause of foodborne disease at home.
By News Desk on September 28, A systematic review has been unable to establish the proportion of food poisoning cases in. 3 Extent and Health Consequences of Chronic Sleep Loss and Sleep Disorders.
but probably to a lesser extent than do occupational or lifestyle changes. (daytime sleepiness) criteria. The review also concluded that there was a lack of benefit in patients who had no daytime sleepiness (Robinson et al., b). However, each of these.Download